Acknowledgments and Citation


The National Science Board extends its appreciation to the staff of the National Science Foundation and to the many others, too numerous to list individually, who contributed to the preparation of this report. 

This report was produced under the leadership of Amy Burke, Program Director, Science, Technology, and Innovation Analysis Program of the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES); Emilda B. Rivers, Director, NCSES; Christina Freyman, Deputy Director, NCSES; and John Finamore, Chief Statistician, NCSES. 

The report benefited from extensive contributions from NCSES staff, including Christina Freyman and Amy Burke. Jock Black provided advice on statistical issues. Clara Boothby, Anna Groves, Angela Haskell, and Carol Robbins served in administrative roles.

RTI International assisted with report preparation. Cheyane Mitchell and Ben Dalton performed data collection and analysis and made substantive contributions to the report structure and content. Robin Henke led the work on data quality assurance; August Gering led the editing team, with composition support from Alex Cone. Staff at Penobscot Bay Media, LLC (PenBay Media), created the report site. The following persons and agencies reviewed this report: 

Eric Hanushek, Stanford University

Michael O. Martin, Boston College

Richard Phelps, Nonpartisan Education Group

Morgan Polikoff, University of Southern California

Department of Homeland Security

National Center for Education Statistics

National Science Foundation 

Office of Science and Technology Policy 

The National Science Board is especially grateful to the Committee on National Science and Engineering Policy for overseeing preparation of the volume and to the National Science Board Office, under the direction of John Veysey, which provided vital coordination throughout the project. Nadine Lymn led the outreach and dissemination efforts. Amanda Vernon served as Board Office Liaison to the committee. Carol Robbins, May Aydin, and Anne Emig were the Executive Secretaries. 


National Science Board, National Science Foundation. 2023. Elementary and Secondary STEM Education. Science and Engineering Indicators 2024. NSB-2023-31. Alexandria, VA. Available at