Acknowledgments and Citation


The National Science Board extends its appreciation to the staff of the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES) and to the many others, too numerous to list individually, who contributed to the preparation of this report.

This report was produced under the leadership of Emilda B. Rivers, Director, NCSES; Christina Freyman, Deputy Director, NCSES; and John Finamore, Chief Statistician, NCSES.

The report benefited from extensive contributions from NCSES staff, including Clara Boothby, Alexandria Hughes, Kelly Kang, and Devi Mishra. Jock Black provided advice on statistical issues. Anna Groves and Angela Haskell served in administrative roles.

RTI International assisted with report preparation under the leadership of Dr. Susan Rotermund. Dr. Melissa Cominole, Dr. Serena Hinz, and Shaquavia Straughn conducted data analysis and prepared text; Jon Boyette prepared graphic displays; Taylor Campbell and Cheyane Mitchell verified estimates cited in the text; August Gering led the editing team, with composition support from Alex Cone. Deborah Kulik provided project management support. Staff at Penobscot Bay Media, LLC (PenBay Media), created the report site. The following persons and agencies reviewed this report:

Peter Arcidiacono, Duke University

Mirka Martel, Institute of International Education

Catherine Riegle-Crumb, The University of Texas at Austin

Department of Education


Office of Science and Technology Policy

The National Science Board is especially grateful to the Committee on National Science and Engineering Policy for overseeing preparation of the volume and to the National Science Board Office, under the direction of John Veysey, which provided vital coordination throughout the project. Elizabeth Jeffers led the outreach and dissemination efforts. Amanda Vernon served as Board Office Liaison to the committee. Carol Robbins, May Aydin, Steven Deitz, and Anne Emig were the Executive Secretaries.


National Science Board, National Science Foundation. 2023. Higher Education in Science and Engineering. Science and Engineering Indicators 2024. NSB-2023-32. Alexandria, VA. Available at