Acknowledgments and Citation


The National Science Board extends its appreciation to the staff of the National Science Foundation (NSF) and to the many others, too numerous to list individually, who contributed to the preparation of this report. 

This report was produced under the leadership of Amy Burke, Program Director, Science, Technology, and Innovation Analysis Program of the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES); Emilda B. Rivers, Director, NCSES; and Christina Freyman, Deputy Director, and John Finamore, Chief Statistician, NCSES. 

The report benefitted from extensive contributions from NCSES staff, including Christina Freyman, Amy Burke, Michael Gibbons, Gary Anderson, and Mike Yamaner. Jock Black provided advice on statistical issues. Clara Boothby, Anna Groves, Angela Haskell, Carol Robbins, Karen White served in administrative roles. 

RTI International assisted with report preparation under the leadership of Dr. Susan Rotermund. Alison Bean de Hernandez performed data collection and analysis, and Dr. Chris Hill and Dr. David Cheney of Technology Policy International (a subcontractor to RTI) made substantive contributions to the report structure and content. Robin Henke led the work on data quality assurance; August Gering led the editing team, with composition support from Alex Cone. Rossana Zetina-Beale and Deborah Kulik provided project management support. Staff at Penobscot Bay Media, LLC (PenBay Media), created the report site. The following persons and agencies reviewed this report: 

David Goldston, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

Matt Hourihan, Federation of American Scientists

Michael S. Lauer, National Institutes of Health

National Science Foundation 

Office of Science and Technology Policy 

The National Science Board is especially grateful to the Committee on National Science and Engineering Policy for overseeing preparation of the volume and to the National Science Board Office, under the direction of John Veysey, which provided vital coordination throughout the project. Nadine Lymn led the outreach and dissemination efforts. Amanda Vernon and Portia Flowers served as Board Office Liaisons to the committee. Carol Robbins, May Aydin and Anne Emig were the Executive Secretaries. 


National Science Board, National Science Foundation. 2023. Academic Research and Development. Science and Engineering Indicators 2024. NSB-2023-26. Alexandria, VA. Available at