Control (of institution): A classification of whether an institution is operated by publicly elected or appointed officials (public control) or by privately elected or appointed officials and derives its major source of funds from private sources (private control).

Doctoral degree: In this report, “doctoral degree” or “doctorate” means a research doctorate. The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System terms these degrees “doctor’s degree-research/scholarship” and defines them as “a PhD or other doctor’s degree that requires advanced work beyond the master’s level, including the preparation and defense of a dissertation based on original research, or the planning and execution of an original project demonstrating substantial artistic or scholarly achievement. Some examples of this type of degree may include EdD, DMA, DBA, DSc, DA, or DM, and others, as designated by the awarding institution.”

European Union (EU): The EU comprises 27 member nations: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden. Data in this report reflect the period before the departure of the United Kingdom.

First-university degree: A terminal undergraduate degree program; these degrees are classified within level 6 (bachelor’s degree or equivalent) or level 7 (master’s degree or equivalent, including “long first degrees”) in the 2011 International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), which was developed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Individual countries use different names for the first-university degree (e.g., corso di Laurea in Italy, diplom in Germany, licence in France, and bachelor’s degree in the United States and in Asian countries). For more on ISCED levels, see the Technical Appendix.

Internationally mobile students: Students who have crossed a national or territorial border for purposes of education and are now enrolled outside their countries of origin. This term refers to degree mobility in data collected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics, the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and Eurostat and excludes students who travel for credit mobility.

Natural sciences: The combined group of physical and biological sciences; mathematics and statistics; computer sciences; agricultural sciences; and earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences.

Science and engineering (S&E) fields: Degree award data cover degrees in the following S&E fields: astronomy; chemistry; physics; atmospheric sciences; earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences; mathematics and statistics; computer sciences; agricultural sciences; biological sciences; psychology; social sciences; and engineering. At the doctoral level, the medical and health sciences are included under S&E because these data correspond to the doctor’s-research/scholarship degree level, which includes research-focused degrees.

Underrepresented minorities: This category comprises three racial or ethnic minority groups (Blacks or African Americans, Hispanics or Latinos, and American Indians or Alaska Natives) whose representation in S&E education is smaller than their representation in the U.S. population.

Key to Acronyms and Abbreviations

HBCU: historically Black college or university

HHE: high-Hispanic-enrollment institution

HSI: Hispanic-serving institution

IIE: Institute of International Education

IPEDS: Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System

ISCED: International Standard Classification of Education

MSI: minority-serving institution

NAICU: National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities

NCES: National Center for Education Statistics

NCSES: National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics

NSB: National Science Board

NSF: National Science Foundation

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OPT: optional practical training

R&D: research and development

S&E: science and engineering

SED: Survey of Earned Doctorates

SEVIS: Student and Exchange Visitor Information System

UIS: UNESCO Institute for Statistics

UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization