Acknowledgments and Citation


The National Science Board (NSB) extends its appreciation to the staff of the National Science Foundation (NSF) and to the many others, too numerous to list individually, who contributed to the preparation of this report.

This report was produced under the leadership of Amy Burke, Program Director, Science and Engineering Indicators Program of the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES); Emilda B. Rivers, Director, NCSES; and Vipin Arora, Deputy Director, NCSES.

The report benefited from extensive contributions from NCSES staff. Matthew Williams provided advice on statistical issues. Devi Mishra assisted with Student Exchange and Visitor Program data, and Kelly Kang assisted with Survey of Earned Doctorates data. Daniel Foley helped to shepherd the report through its final production. Carol Robbins and Karen White served in administrative roles. May Aydin, Catherine Corlies, and Rajinder Raut coordinated the report’s publication process and managed the development of its digital platform. Christine Hamel and Tanya Gore conducted editorial and composition review.

Beyond NCSES, Anne Emig of NSF’s Office of International Science and Engineering connected us with experts on India’s higher education data, and Jolanta Juszkiewicz, Kent Phillippe, and Ellen Hause of the American Association of Community Colleges provided valuable input on community college degree and certificate programs.

SRI International, Center for Innovation Strategy and Policy, assisted with report preparation. Steven Deitz and Claire Lecornu of SRI International provided an especially large contribution to the report. August Gering at RTI International provided editing services. Michelle Goryn at SRI International provided editorial assistance. Staff at Penobscot Bay Media, LLC (PenBay Media), created the report site. The following persons and agencies reviewed this report:

Mirka Martel, Institute of International Education

Hironao Okahana, Council of Graduate Schools

Nicole Smith, Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce

Jon Turk, St. Louis University

Remco Zwetsloot, Center for Security and Emerging Technology, Georgetown University.

Department of Education

Department of Homeland Security


Office of Science and Technology Policy

NSB is especially grateful to the Committee on National Science and Engineering Policy for overseeing preparation of the volume and to the National Science Board Office, under the direction of John Veysey, which provided vital coordination throughout the project. Nadine Lymn led the outreach and dissemination efforts. Reba Bandyopadhyay and Portia Flowers served as Board Office Liaisons to the committee. Carol Robbins, May Aydin, and Anne Emig were the Executive Secretaries.


National Science Board, National Science Foundation. 2022. Higher Education in Science and Engineering. Science and Engineering Indicators 2022. NSB-2022-3. Alexandria, VA. Available at