Control (of institution): A classification of whether an institution is operated by publicly elected or appointed officials (public control) or by privately elected or appointed officials and derives its major source of funds from private sources (private control).

Net assignable square feet (NASF): Unit for measuring research space. NASF is the sum of all areas on all floors of a building assigned to, or available to be assigned to, an occupant for a specific use, such as research or instruction. NASF is measured from the inside face of walls.

R&D: Research and experimental development comprise creative and systemic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge—including knowledge of humankind, culture, and society—and to devise new applications of available knowledge (OECD 2015).

Basic research: Experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundations of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view.

Applied research: Original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge; directed primarily toward a specific, practical aim or objective.

Experimental development: Systematic work, drawing on knowledge gained from research and practical experience and producing additional knowledge, which is directed to producing new products or processes or to improving existing products or processes.

Research space: The budgeted and accounted-for space used for sponsored R&D activities at academic institutions. Research space is the net assignable square feet of space in buildings within which research activities take place. Research facilities are located within buildings. A building is a roofed structure for permanent or temporary shelter of people, animals, plants, materials, or equipment. Structures are included as research space if they are (1) attached to a foundation; (2) roofed; (3) serviced by a utility, exclusive of lighting; and (4) a source of significant maintenance and repair activities.

Key to Acronyms and Abbreviations

DOD: Department of Defense

DOE: Department of Energy

FY: fiscal year

GDP: gross domestic product

HBCU: historically Black colleges and universities

HERD: Higher Education Research and Development Survey

HHE: high-Hispanic-enrollment institution

HHS: Department of Health and Human Services

MSI: minority-serving institution

NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NASF: net assignable square feet

NCSES: National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics

NIH: National Institutes of Health

NSB: National Science Board

NSF: National Science Foundation

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

RA: research assistantship

R&D: research and development

S&E: science and engineering

TA: teaching assistantship

USDA: Department of Agriculture