Acknowledgments and Citation


The National Science Board extends its appreciation to the staff of the National Science Foundation (NSF) and to the many others, too numerous to list individually, who contributed to the preparation of this report.

This report was produced under the leadership of Amy Burke, Program Director, Science and Engineering Indicators Program of the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES); Emilda B. Rivers, Director, NCSES; and Vipin Arora, Deputy Director, NCSES.

The report benefitted from extensive contributions from NCSES staff, including Vipin Arora, Amy Burke, Michael Gibbons, Ledia Guci, John Jankowski, and Mike Yamaner. Jock Black provided advice on statistical issues. Carol Robbins and Karen White served in administrative roles. May Aydin, Catherine Corlies, and Rajinder Raut coordinated the report’s publication process and managed the development of its digital platform. Christina Hamel and Tanya Gore conducted editorial and composition review.

SRI International, Center for Innovation Strategy and Policy, assisted with report preparation. Steven Deitz and Kelsey Cooper of SRI International provided an especially large contribution to the report. RTI International provided editing services. Michelle Goryn at SRI International provided editorial assistance. Staff at Penobscot Bay Media, LLC (PenBay Media) created the report site. The following persons and agencies reviewed this report:

Gerald Blazey, Northern Illinois University

Nancy Calvin-Naylor, University of Michigan

Bryan Cook, Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities

Stephen Heinig, Association of American Medical Colleges

John King, University of California, Davis

Jan Palmowski, The Guild of European Research-Intensive Universities

Lydia Snover, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

National Science Foundation

Office of Science and Technology Policy

The National Science Board is especially grateful to the Committee on National Science and Engineering Policy for overseeing preparation of the volume and to the National Science Board Office, under the direction of John Veysey, which provided vital coordination throughout the project. Nadine Lymn led the outreach and dissemination efforts. Reba Bandyopadhyay and Portia Flowers served as Board Office Liaisons to the committee. Carol Robbins, May Aydin and Anne Emig were the Executive Secretaries.


National Science Board, National Science Foundation. 2021. Science and Engineering Indicators 2022. Academic Research and Development. NSB-2021-3. Alexandria, VA. Available at