This report provides an analytical overview of the U.S. science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) labor force, which is comprised of employed and unemployed workers. Analysis is based on various data sources, including education and workforce surveys conducted by the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES). These surveys cover most occupations in the STEM labor force with a bachelor’s degree or higher. Data from the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) are also used to analyze the STEM workforce at all education levels, providing analysis of the STEM workforce as defined by those with at least a bachelor’s degree and those without. Topics covered in this report include the definition, size, and growth of the STEM workforce as well as the relationship between training and occupation. Salary and unemployment rates provide information on the position of STEM workers in the economy and their labor market conditions. An examination of the demographic makeup of the STEM labor force and the role of foreign-born STEM workers concludes the report.

Most of the data presented in this report are from 2019 and, therefore, do not reflect the impact of the current COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is a sidebar that examines monthly unemployment rates of the STEM and non-STEM workforces for selected months in 2020.