Acknowledgments and Citation


The National Science Board extends its appreciation to the staff of the National Science Foundation and to the many others, too numerous to list individually, who contributed to the preparation of this report.

This report was produced under the leadership of Amy Burke, Program Director, Science and Engineering Indicators Program of the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES); Emilda B. Rivers, Director, NCSES; Vipin Arora, Deputy Director, NCSES; and Arthur W. Lupia, former Assistant Director of the Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences Directorate.

The report benefited from numerous contributions from NCSES staff. John Jankowski (Director, NCSES R&D Statistics Program) provided continuing input and review about the data and conclusions documented in the report. Ronda Britt, Michael Gibbons, Audrey Kindlon, Christopher Pece, and Raymond Wolfe responded to queries about the data in their respective R&D surveys and provided special tabulations where needed. Jock Black provided advice on statistical issues. Karen White served in an administrative role. May Aydin, Catherine Corlies, and Rajinder Raut coordinated the report’s publication process and managed the development of its digital platform. Christine Hamel and Tanya Gore conducted editorial and composition review.

SRI International, Center for Innovation Strategy and Policy, assisted with report preparation. Mia Thomas provided an especially large contribution to the report; Steve Deitz and Emily Mellicant also contributed. August Gering at RTI International provided editing services. Michelle Goryn at SRI International provided editorial assistance and Nancy Gough at BETAH Associates provided early editorial input. Staff at Penobscot Bay Media, LLC (PenBay Media), created the report site. The following persons and agencies reviewed this report:

John Jankowski, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics

Marty Grueber, TEConomy Partners LLC

Kei Koizumi, White House Office of Science and Technology Policy

John Sargent, Congressional Research Service

Bureau of Economic Analysis

Department of Defense

Department of Homeland Security

National Institutes of Health

National Science Foundation

The National Science Board is especially grateful to the Committee on National Science and Engineering Policy for overseeing preparation of the volume and to the National Science Board Office, under the direction of John Veysey, which provided vital coordination throughout the project. Nadine Lymn led the outreach and dissemination efforts. Reba Bandyopadhyay and Portia Flowers served as Board Office Liaisons to the committee. Carol Robbins, May Aydin, and Anne Emig were the Executive Secretaries.


National Science Board, National Science Foundation. 2022. Research and Development: U.S. Trends and International Comparisons. Science and Engineering Indicators 2022. NSB-2022-5. Alexandria, VA. Available at