Acknowledgments and Citation


The National Science Board extends its appreciation to the staff of the National Science Foundation and to the many others who contributed to the preparation of this report.

Beethika Khan, Program Director, Science and Engineering Indicators Program of the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES), had primary responsibility for the report under the leadership of Emilda B. Rivers, Director, NCSES, and Arthur W. Lupia, Assistant Director of the Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate.

The report benefited from extensive contributions from NCSES staff. Matt Williams provided advice on statistical issues. Carol Robbins and Karen White served in administrative roles. May Aydin, Catherine Corlies, and Rajinder Raut coordinated the report’s publication process and managed the development of its digital platform. Christine Hamel and Tanya Gore conducted editorial and composition review.

SRI International, Center for Innovation Strategy and Policy assisted with report preparation. Jessica Avery of SRI provided substantial ongoing contributions to the report. Science-Metrix provided data preparation and content analysis. RTI International provided editing services. Staff at Penobscot Bay Media, LLC (PenBay Media), created the report site. The following persons and agencies reviewed this report:

Carolina Castaldi, Eindhoven University of Technology

Rolf Lehming, retired, National Science Foundation

Ben Shneiderman, University of Maryland

Sacha Wunsch-Vincent, World Intellectual Property Organization

Bureau of Economic Analysis

Bureau of Labor Statistics

National Science Foundation

Office of Science and Technology Policy

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

The National Science Board is especially grateful to the Committee on National Science and Engineering Policy for overseeing preparation of the volume and to the National Science Board Office, under the direction of John Veysey, which provided vital coordination throughout the project. Nadine Lymn led the outreach and dissemination efforts. Matthew Wilson and Reba Bandyopadhyay served as Board Office Liaisons to the committee. Beethika Khan, Carol Robbins, and Anne Emig were the Executive Secretaries.


National Science Board, National Science Foundation. 2020. Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation. Science and Engineering Indicators 2020. NSB-2020-4. Alexandria, VA. Available at